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Human rights belong at the centre of the response to HIV.
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In just over a decade, there has been tremendous progress in getting antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to millions of people with HIV around the world. But still, in low- and middle-income countries, only one-third of those who need treatment are getting it. Global, regional and national rules about patents on pharmaceutical products are part of the challenge."

 
What is a generic medicine?


 
The answer is B.

A generic medicine is an equivalent copy of a patented drug or a drug that was previously patented but for which the patent has expired.

A generic drug is intended to be interchangeable with the original patented drug; so, in order to be approved for sale, it must be as effective as the original drug.

Generic medicines are not “fake” or “counterfeit” medicines. A counterfeit medicine is medicine that is deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled as to its identity and/or source. Counterfeit products may include products with the wrong ingredients, lacking active ingredients, with incorrect quantities of active ingredients, or fake packaging. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products."

 
Correct!
The answer is B.

A generic medicine is an equivalent copy of a patented drug or a drug that was previously patented but for which the patent has expired.

A generic drug is intended to be interchangeable with the original patented drug; so, in order to be approved for sale, it must be as effective as the original drug.

Generic medicines are not “fake” or “counterfeit” medicines. A counterfeit medicine is medicine that is deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled as to its identity and/or source. Counterfeit products may include products with the wrong ingredients, lacking active ingredients, with incorrect quantities of active ingredients, or fake packaging. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products."

 
What percentage of HIV drugs being used in developing countries are generics?


 
The answer is C.

More than 80% of HIV drugs being used in developing countries are generics.

Because they are usually significantly cheaper than the original brand-name drugs, generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are now widely used to increase access to HIV treatment around the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In particular, Indian generic drug manufacturers supply more than 80% of the ARVs being used to treat people with HIV in developing countries.

In fact, generic drugs are used widely in high-income countries as well when the patents on original brand-name drugs expire. In 2011, almost 80% of drug prescriptions written in the United States were dispensed for generic medicines, saving more than US$1 trillion in drug expenditures over the preceding decade."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.

More than 80% of HIV drugs being used in developing countries are generics.

Because they are usually significantly cheaper than the original brand-name drugs, generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are now widely used to increase access to HIV treatment around the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In particular, Indian generic drug manufacturers supply more than 80% of the ARVs being used to treat people with HIV in developing countries.

In fact, generic drugs are used widely in high-income countries as well when the patents on original brand-name drugs expire. In 2011, almost 80% of drug prescriptions written in the United States were dispensed for generic medicines, saving more than US$1 trillion in drug expenditures over the preceding decade."

 
What is a compulsory licence?


 
The answer is C.

A compulsory licence is a legal authorization to make a generic version of a patented product such as a medicine.

Holding a patent on a medicine means that the drug company that owns the patent is the only company legally allowed to make, sell, import or export that medicine in a given country. This monopoly means the drug company can charge a higher price as long as the patent is in force.

But there can be exceptions. A “compulsory licence” authorizes someone to make an equivalent copy of that medicine without breaking the law, and is issued without the consent of the drug company that owns the patent. (In exchange, that company is entitled to be paid “adequate remuneration” — such as a royalty on any sales of the competing generic version of the drug made under the licence.) This makes competition possible and can bring down the price of that medicine."


 
Correct!
The answer is C.


A compulsory licence is a legal authorization to make a generic version of a patented product such as a medicine.

Holding a patent on a medicine means that the drug company that owns the patent is the only company legally allowed to make, sell, import or export that medicine in a given country. This monopoly means the drug company can charge a higher price as long as the patent is in force.

But there can be exceptions. A “compulsory licence” authorizes someone to make an equivalent copy of that medicine without breaking the law, and is issued without the consent of the drug company that owns the patent. (In exchange, that company is entitled to be paid “adequate remuneration” — such as a royalty on any sales of the competing generic version of the drug made under the licence.) This makes competition possible and can bring down the price of that medicine."

 
Compulsory licensing to produce generic versions of medicines can only be done in the case of a public health emergency.


 
The answer is FALSE.

There does not need to be an emergency to issue a compulsory licence on a pharmaceutical product. This is a common misunderstanding.

Under the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), countries are free to decide, under their own laws, the grounds for granting compulsory licences on patented medicines. Addressing public health needs can be one of those grounds, whether or not it is an “emergency” situation.

Furthermore, WTO rules say that, when there is an emergency situation, there is no need to first try to negotiate for a voluntary licence from the drug company. Instead, the appropriate authority can skip right to issuing a compulsory licence (which includes ordering adequate remuneration that must be paid to the patent-owner)."






 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.


There does not need to be an emergency to issue a compulsory licence on a pharmaceutical product. This is a common misunderstanding.

Under the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), countries are free to decide, under their own laws, the grounds for granting compulsory licences on patented medicines. Addressing public health needs can be one of those grounds, whether or not it is an “emergency” situation.

Furthermore, WTO rules say that, when there is an emergency situation, there is no need to first try to negotiate for a voluntary licence from the drug company. Instead, the appropriate authority can skip right to issuing a compulsory licence (which includes ordering adequate remuneration that must be paid to the patent-owner)."

 
Why are activists concerned about the negotiations for a new “Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement”?


 
The answer is D.

All of the above are urgent concerns raised by the ongoing negotiations over this massive new “free trade” agreement being negotiated between 12 Pacific-region countries — including the United States. So far, the negotiations have been behind closed doors, and the public is not allowed to see a draft of the text of the agreement.

But some information has leaked. Countries are considering new rules that would let corporations sue governments, if they adopt laws or regulations that interfere with those corporations’ expected future profits — even if those are rules aimed at protecting public health. Also, discussions on new rules about intellectual property are aimed at further limiting countries’ abilities to get easier, faster access to less expensive, generic versions of brand-name drugs. This will only further weaken access to medicines for millions of people."



 
Correct!
The answer is D.


All of the above are urgent concerns raised by the ongoing negotiations over this massive new “free trade” agreement being negotiated between 12 Pacific-region countries — including the United States. So far, the negotiations have been behind closed doors, and the public is not allowed to see a draft of the text of the agreement.

But some information has leaked. Countries are considering new rules that would let corporations sue governments, if they adopt laws or regulations that interfere with those corporations’ expected future profits — even if those are rules aimed at protecting public health.Also, discussions on new rules about intellectual property are aimed at further limiting countries’ abilities to get easier, faster access to less expensive, generic versions of brand-name drugs. This will only further weaken access to medicines for millions of people."

 
In many countries across the world, people living with HIV can be prosecuted and sent to jail for not disclosing their status to their sexual partner, or for exposing others to HIV or transmitting the virus. The criminalization of HIV is a very complex and sensitive issue that has very serious human rights and public health implications."

 
Most of the prosecutions against people living with HIV are taking place in the United States. What country has the second highest number of arrests and prosecutions?


 
The answer is A.

Canada has the second highest number of arrests and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, with more than 155 people charged to date. People are being charged with the crime of “aggravated sexual assault” for not disclosing their status to their sexual partners, even when transmission does not occur and where the risk of transmission was zero or extremely small.

Sweden has a relatively small population of people living with HIV, but is one of the top jurisdictions in terms of HIV-related prosecutions per capita.

To date, there has been only one reported HIV non-disclosure case in Uganda, but things might change. In May 2014, a new bill was passed that includes troubling provisions criminalizing HIV non-disclosure."

 
Correct!
The answer is A.

Canada has the second highest number of arrests and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, with more than 155 people charged to date. People are being charged with the crime of “aggravated sexual assault” for not disclosing their status to their sexual partners, even when transmission does not occur and where the risk of transmission was zero or extremely small.

Sweden has a relatively small population of people living with HIV, but is one of the top jurisdictions in terms of HIV-related prosecutions per capita.

To date, there has been only one reported HIV non-disclosure case in Uganda, but things might change. In May 2014, a new bill was passed that includes troubling provisions criminalizing HIV non-disclosure."

 
Criminalizing HIV non-disclosure, exposure and/or transmission helps prevent new infections.


 
The answer is FALSE.

There is no evidence that criminalizing HIV helps prevent new infections. In fact, HIV criminalization jeopardizes public health efforts to combat HIV by adding barriers to testing, undermining the trust between doctors and their patients (especially where medical records are used in criminal investigations), and reinforcing stigma.

Human rights advocates have also raised concerns about how criminalization undermines efforts to promote shared responsibility for HIV prevention, including safer sex. Criminalization also has a harsh impact on women living with HIV who may have limits on their ability both to disclose safely and to ensure safer sex practices with some partners."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

There is no evidence that criminalizing HIV helps prevent new infections. In fact, HIV criminalization jeopardizes public health efforts to combat HIV by adding barriers to testing, undermining the trust between doctors and their patients (especially where medical records are used in criminal investigations), and reinforcing stigma.

Human rights advocates have also raised concerns about how criminalization undermines efforts to promote shared responsibility for HIV prevention, including safer sex. Criminalization also has a harsh impact on women living with HIV who may have limits on their ability both to disclose safely and to ensure safer sex practices with some partners."

 
International experts, including UNAIDS, have urged states to limit the use of the criminal law to which types of cases?


 
The answer is B.

International experts, including UNAIDS and the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, have urged states to limit the use of the criminal law to cases of intentional transmission of HIV — in other words, to those exceptional cases where a person intended to transmit the virus to a sexual partner and actually did transmit it.

UNAIDS has said that the criminal law should never be applied in cases of sex with a condom, oral sex, or sex where the HIV-positive partner is under effective treatment or has a low viral load, because there is no significant risk of transmission in such circumstances. Yet in many countries the law is still being applied even in these cases."

 
Correct!
The answer is B.

International experts, including UNAIDS and the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, have urged states to limit the use of the criminal law to cases of intentional transmission of HIV – in other words, to those exceptional cases where a person intended to transmit the virus to a sexual partner and actually did transmit it.

UNAIDS has said that the criminal law should never be applied in cases of sex with a condom, oral sex, or sex where the HIV-positive partner is under effective treatment or has a low viral load, because there is no significant risk of transmission in such circumstances. Yet in many countries the law is still being applied even in these cases."

 
The criminalization of HIV non-disclosure, exposure or transmission can help protect women at risk of HIV.


 
The answer is FALSE.

There is little evidence suggesting that criminalizing HIV non-disclosure, exposure or transmission protects women at risk of HIV infection.

HIV criminalization is often perceived as a tool to protect women, but criminalization does nothing to protect women from violence or gender inequalities. And just having a law on the books, which evidence suggests has little impact on behaviour, is not effective HIV prevention. In fact, HIV criminalization may disproportionately affect women living with HIV who are not in a position to either disclose their status or use precautions to protect their partners, for fear of violence or other abuse."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

There is little evidence suggesting that criminalizing HIV non-disclosure, exposure or transmission protects women at risk of HIV infection.

HIV criminalization is often perceived as a tool to protect women, but criminalization does nothing to protect women from violence or gender inequalities. And just having a law on the books, which evidence suggests has little impact on behaviour, is not effective HIV prevention. In fact, HIV criminalization may disproportionately affect women living with HIV who are not in a position to either disclose their status or use precautions to protect their partners, for fear of violence or other abuse."

 
HIV-related prosecutions can only occur in places with HIV-specific laws.


 
The answer is FALSE.

Many HIV-related prosecutions have occurred in places that do not have HIV-specific laws.

Some jurisdictions have enacted HIV-specific criminal laws; other jurisdictions have applied existing, general criminal laws to HIV cases.

HIV-specific laws are highly problematic. Yet while existing criminal laws should suffice to address exceptional cases that may warrant prosecutions they can also be problematic when unfairly applied. For example, in Canada, laws against sexual assault have been applied very broadly, leading to unfair prosecutions and harsh, disproportionate sentences against people living with HIV."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

Many HIV-related prosecutions have occurred in places that do not have HIV-specific laws.

Some jurisdictions have enacted HIV-specific criminal laws; other jurisdictions have applied existing, general criminal laws to HIV cases.

HIV-specific laws are highly problematic. Yet while existing criminal laws should suffice to address exceptional cases that may warrant prosecutions they can also be problematic when unfairly applied. For example, in Canada, laws against sexual assault have been applied very broadly, leading to unfair prosecutions and harsh, disproportionate sentences against people living with HIV."

 
In many countries around the world, people who use drugs are criminalized, and drug use is not treated as a public health issue. Disproportionate use of criminal law is often directly at odds with public health messaging and programs, which have been proven to improve the health of people who use and drugs and reduce the spread of HIV. When a state’s primary approach to drug use is the criminal law, human rights abuses are almost always the unfortunate result."

 
Drug enforcement is largely effective, because police are successfully preventing illicit drugs from becoming available to potential users around the world and harsh punishments effectively deter people from using or dealing drugs.


 
The answer is FALSE.

Drug enforcement is largely ineffective at reducing the availability of drugs or preventing people from using them.

Data from the World Drug Report produced each year by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) demonstrate that overall there is only a tiny fraction of illicit drugs being seized by law enforcement agencies around the world — and law enforcement actions rarely lead to any sustained reduction in drug markets.

Research also demonstrates that harsh punishments for drug offences are not effective in deterring drug use or dealing. However, these measures are very costly in that they lead to more people in prison for longer periods, and fuel cases of overdose and transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other blood-borne diseases."


 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

Drug enforcement is largely ineffective at reducing the availability of drugs or preventing people from using them.

Data from the World Drug Report produced each year by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) demonstrate that overall there is only a tiny fraction of illicit drugs being seized by law enforcement agencies around the world — and law enforcement actions rarely lead to any sustained reduction in drug markets.

Research also demonstrates that harsh punishments for drug offences are not effective in deterring drug use or dealing. However, these measures are very costly in that they lead to more people in prison for longer periods, and fuel cases of overdose and transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other blood-borne diseases."

 
Most states have laws that rank illegal drugs on a scale — often called a “drug schedule” — that determines how strictly the law controls the drug and how harsh the punishment is for possessing that drug without authorization. In most cases, drug schedules reflect the harmfulness of the drug.


 
The answer is FALSE.

The drug schedules in countries’ national laws are often not based on the best available science. Some have not been updated in many years, and many drug schedules reflect assumptions and biases.

For example, substances such as marijuana are ranked in some countries in the “most restricted” category, although many scientific studies demonstrate that they are less dangerous to people who use them and to society than nicotine and alcohol, which are often minimally restricted."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

The drug schedules in countries’ national laws are often not based on the best available science. Some have not been updated in many years, and many drug schedules reflect assumptions and biases.

For example, substances such as marijuana are ranked in some countries in the “most restricted” category, although many scientific studies demonstrate that they are less dangerous to people who use them and to society than nicotine and alcohol, which are often minimally restricted."

 
How many countries still have the death penalty for drug offences?


 
The answer is C.

According to the last global overview (by Harm Reduction International in 2012), 33 countries and territories have the death penalty for drug offences, and it is a mandatory sentence in 13 of these jurisdictions.

Each year, hundreds of people are executed for drug offences in the few countries — China, Iran, Vietnam and Saudi Arabia, to name a few — that are ignoring the growing international consensus that drug use is primarily a public health issue.

However, punitive responses to drugs exist around in far too many countries. For example, possessing small amounts of drugs can lead to imprisonment for months in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Luxembourg — or even up to five years in prison in Greece or life in prison in Cyprus.

Canada has adopted mandatory minimum prison sentences for certain drug offences, even though such laws achieve nothing for drug control and are costly and damaging to public health. And the United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world, with more than half for drug offences, with African-Americans hugely disproportionately represented."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.

According to the last global overview (by Harm Reduction International in 2012), 33 countries and territories have the death penalty for drug offences, and it is a mandatory sentence in 13 of these jurisdictions.

Each year, hundreds of people are executed for drug offences in the few countries — China, Iran, Vietnam and Saudi Arabia, to name a few — that are ignoring the growing international consensus that drug use is primarily a public health issue.

However, punitive responses to drugs exist around in far too many countries. For example, possessing small amounts of drugs can lead to imprisonment for months in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Luxembourg — or even up to five years in prison in Greece or life in prison in Cyprus.

Canada has adopted mandatory minimum prison sentences for certain drug offences, even though such laws achieve nothing for drug control and are costly and damaging to public health. And the United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world, with more than half for drug offences, with African-Americans hugely disproportionately represented."

 
The main global drug control agreements prevent countries from having harm reduction programmes such as opioid substitution treatment (OST), needle and syringe programs (NSPs) or supervised drug consumption services (SCS).


 
The answer is FALSE.

The United Nations treaties dealing with drug control do not block countries from implementing these kinds of health services that are important for addressing HIV and other health risks among people who use drugs.

In fact, more than a decade ago, the internal legal department advising the UN’s lead agency dealing with drugs and crime stated that all of these harm reduction measures are permitted under the terms of the three global UN drug control treaties.

However, those treaties are unhelpful and damaging because they pressure or encourage governments around the world to deal with drugs primarily through criminal laws, rather than as a public health concern. Harm reduction and other health services, not prosecution and punishment, are critical for HIV prevention and treatment among people who use drugs."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

The United Nations treaties dealing with drug control do not block countries from implementing these kinds of health services that are important for addressing HIV and other health risks among people who use drugs.

In fact, more than a decade ago, the internal legal department advising the UN’s lead agency dealing with drugs and crime stated that all of these harm reduction measures are permitted under the terms of the three global UN drug control treaties.

However, those treaties are unhelpful and damaging because they pressure or encourage governments around the world to deal with drugs primarily through criminal laws, rather than as a public health concern. Harm reduction and other health services, not prosecution and punishment, are critical for HIV prevention and treatment among people who use drugs."

 
Despite longstanding calls for major reforms to drug laws, no country in the world has decriminalized drugs.


 
The answer is FALSE.

Numerous countries have decriminalized drugs to some degree, with positive outcomes for both health and human rights.

For example, in 2000, Portugal changed its law so that purchasing and possessing limited quantities of illegal drugs for personal use is no longer criminal. There has been no surge in drug use (and actually a reduction in heroin use), and drug-related HIV infections have decreased substantially. And several EU countries have effectively removed criminal prosecution for at least some cannabis offences.

Support for decriminalization is growing, as are new approaches to regulating drugs more intelligently. Uruguay has legalized and regulated cannabis, as have two states in the U.S. Earlier this year, the West Africa Commission on Drugs called on governments in that region to treat drugs as a public health issue and consider partial decriminalization.

Calls for rethinking global drug policy will only get louder as we approach the 2016 UN General Assembly’s special session on the future of global drug policy."



 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

Numerous countries have decriminalized drugs to some degree, with positive outcomes for both health and human rights.

For example, in 2000, Portugal changed its law so that purchasing and possessing limited quantities of illegal drugs for personal use is no longer criminal. There has been no surge in drug use (and actually a reduction in heroin use), and drug-related HIV infections have decreased substantially. And several EU countries have effectively removed criminal prosecution for at least some cannabis offences.

Support for decriminalization is growing, as are new approaches to regulating drugs more intelligently. Uruguay has legalized and regulated cannabis, as have two states in the U.S. Earlier this year, the West Africa Commission on Drugs called on governments in that region to treat drugs as a public health issue and consider partial decriminalization.

Calls for rethinking global drug policy will only get louder as we approach the 2016 UN General Assembly’s special session on the future of global drug policy."

 
There is a vast diversity among the hundreds of indigenous peoples around the world. But many have experienced similar histories of colonization (including brutal violence), attacks on their culture, removal of their resources, and systematic social and economic exclusion. In many settings, these human rights abuses continue, leading to poor health for indigenous communities through generations. This context is fertile ground for the HIV epidemic."

 
Compared to the HIV prevalence in non-indigenous populations, indigenous peoples have an HIV prevalence that is:


 
Strictly speaking, the answer is D (“It depends”). However, on a global scale, C (“Higher”) could also be correct.

While there is limited data gathered systematically and specifically on HIV among indigenous peoples, it often indicates that many indigenous peoples are disproportionately affected by HIV.

For example, HIV prevalence among Aboriginal people in Canada is more than three times higher than among non-Aboriginal people. In the United States, HIV prevalence is higher among people identified as American Indians, Alaska Natives or Native Hawaiians than among whites (but lower than HIV prevalence among African-Americans and Latino people). In Central America, certain indigenous populations living in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras have been particularly affected by the epidemic.

And within indigenous populations, the HIV prevalence is higher among some groups. In particular, this is often correlated with factors such as higher prevalence of drug use, and women, young people and men who have sex with men are particularly affected."

 
Correct!
Strictly speaking, the answer is D (“It depends”). However, on a global scale, C (“Higher”) could also be correct.

While there is limited data gathered systematically and specifically on HIV among indigenous peoples, it often indicates that many indigenous peoples are disproportionately affected by HIV.

For example, HIV prevalence among Aboriginal people in Canada is more than three times higher than among non-Aboriginal people. In the United States, HIV prevalence is higher among people identified as American Indians, Alaska Natives or Native Hawaiians than among whites (but lower than HIV prevalence among African-Americans and Latino people). In Central America, certain indigenous populations living in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras have been particularly affected by the epidemic.

And within indigenous populations, the HIV prevalence is higher among some groups. In particular, this is often correlated with factors such as higher prevalence of drug use, and women, young people and men who have sex with men are particularly affected."

 
Where indigenous communities are particularly and disproportionately affected by HIV, this is often because of:


 
The answer is G, all of the above.

The circumstances vary around the world and among indigenous communities, but some or all of these factors are consistently associated with higher HIV prevalence among indigenous communities.

Many of these are the legacies of colonization and the product of ongoing systemic discrimination. Poverty, inadequate housing and education, and experiencing violence or abuse (including during childhood) all create risks to health. These also contribute to higher rates of harmful substance use and incarceration, as well as risky sexual exposure to HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

Indigenous communities also often face underfunded or inadequate health services, or information not available in languages or formats that are accessible. Stigma and discrimination are also barriers to seeking HIV testing for some people — including fears of discrimination from health services, as well as discrimination from within their own communities."

 
Correct!
The answer is G, all of the above.

The circumstances vary around the world and among indigenous communities, but some or all of these factors are consistently associated with higher HIV prevalence among indigenous communities.

Many of these are the legacies of colonization and the product of ongoing systemic discrimination. Poverty, inadequate housing and education, and experiencing violence or abuse (including during childhood) all create risks to health. These also contribute to higher rates of harmful substance use and incarceration, as well as risky sexual exposure to HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

Indigenous communities also often face underfunded or inadequate health services, or information not available in languages or formats that are accessible. Stigma and discrimination are also barriers to seeking HIV testing for some people — including fears of discrimination from health services, as well as discrimination from within their own communities."

 
What was the first international legal declaration or treaty to specifically address the human rights of indigenous peoples?


 
The answer is B.

The Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention adopted in 1957 at the International Labour Organization (ILO Convention 107).

This treaty was important in recognizing indigenous people’s entitlement to certain political rights (e.g., citizenship and voting) in countries where these were not recognized. But the convention was also racist in its characterization of indigenous people and offered little to no protection for their land rights.

In 1989 it was replaced with a more meaningful Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (ILO Convention 169), which explicitly says (in Article 25) that governments must ensure adequate health services for indigenous peoples, which should be community-based and implemented cooperatively with indigenous communities. Sadly, only 22 countries — most of them in Latin America — have ratified the Convention."

 
Correct!
The answer is B.

The Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention adopted in 1957 at the International Labour Organization (ILO Convention 107).

This treaty was important in recognizing indigenous people’s entitlement to certain political rights (e.g., citizenship and voting) in countries where these were not recognized. But the convention was also racist in its characterization of indigenous people and offered little to no protection for their land rights.

In 1989 it was replaced with a more meaningful Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (ILO Convention 169), which explicitly says (in Article 25) that governments must ensure adequate health services for indigenous peoples, which should be community-based and implemented cooperatively with indigenous communities. Sadly, only 22 countries — most of them in Latin America — have ratified the Convention."

 
The UN General Assembly has recognized the specific rights of indigenous peoples.


 
The answer is TRUE.

In 2007, a majority of countries in the UN General Assembly adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The Declaration states (in Article 21) that “indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions,” including in the area of health. Governments must act to ensure ongoing improvement of these conditions, and must pay special attention to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities.

The Declaration also says (in Article 24) that indigenous individuals “have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services.”

Note that four countries with sizeable indigenous populations — the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand — voted against the Declaration at the UN General Assembly. Facing ongoing criticism, they have since have all stated that they “support” the Declaration but routinely describe it as “aspirational” and “non-binding.”

 
Correct!
The answer is TRUE.

In 2007, a majority of countries in the UN General Assembly adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The Declaration states (in Article 21) that “indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions,” including in the area of health. Governments must act to ensure ongoing improvement of these conditions, and must pay special attention to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities.

The Declaration also says (in Article 24) that indigenous individuals “have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services.”

Note that four countries with sizeable indigenous populations — the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand — voted against the Declaration at the UN General Assembly. Facing ongoing criticism, they have since have all stated that they “support” the Declaration but routinely describe it as “aspirational” and “non-binding.”

 
When and where was the first International Indigenous AIDS Conference held?


 
The answer is B.

The first International Indigenous AIDS Conference was hosted in Auckland, New Zealand in 1991 by the Te Roopu Tautoko Trust.

In 2010, the International Indigenous Working Group on HIV & AIDS (IIWGHA) was created in order to build a unified voice for indigenous peoples in collective action against HIV and AIDS.

IIWGHA is committed to hosting an international gathering of indigenous peoples during the activities of the International AIDS Conference every two years, in order to increase visibility of the HIV-related needs of indigenous peoples and their collective action in responding to the epidemic."


 
Correct!
The answer is B.

The first International Indigenous AIDS Conference was hosted in Auckland, New Zealand in 1991 by the Te Roopu Tautoko Trust.

In 2010, the International Indigenous Working Group on HIV & AIDS (IIWGHA) was created in order to build a unified voice for indigenous peoples in collective action against HIV and AIDS.

IIWGHA is committed to hosting an international gathering of indigenous peoples during the activities of the International AIDS Conference every two years, in order to increase visibility of the HIV-related needs of indigenous peoples and their collective action in responding to the epidemic."

 
The association of HIV with homosexuality has created serious barriers to HIV prevention, education and treatment efforts since the beginning of the epidemic. The criminalization and marginalization of gay men, lesbians, trans people and other sexual minorities in many countries both perpetuates serious human rights abuses and undermines national HIV responses."

 
How many countries in the world criminalize people because of their sexual orientation or gender identity?


 
The answer is C.

More than 80 countries criminalize people because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

These 80 countries have laws that criminalize either consensual sex between adults of the same sex (most often men, but also sometimes including women) or the expression of a transgender identity — or both, in some cases. In at least five countries, and parts of two other countries, consensual sexual activity between two people of the same sex is punishable by death."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.

More than 80 countries criminalize people because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

These 80 countries have laws that criminalize either consensual sex between adults of the same sex (most often men, but also sometimes including women) or the expression of a transgender identity — or both, in some cases. In at least five countries, and parts of two other countries, consensual sexual activity between two people of the same sex is punishable by death."

 
Which of the following countries have federal or state laws of some sort against so-called “homosexual propaganda” (i.e., laws that ban or restrict discussion of LGBTI people and their rights)?


 
The answer is E.

Russia, USA, Nigeria and Uganda all have federal or state laws of some sort against so-called “homosexual propaganda.”

In June 2013, Russia’s parliament adopted a new federal law prohibiting “propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations.”

In Nigeria, a new law of January 2014 mandates 14 years in prison for anyone in a same-sex union, and 10 years for operating, participating in or supporting gay clubs and organizations.

In February 2014, a new Ugandan law reaffirmed the existing penalty of life imprisonment for same-sex intimacy. It also imposes forced HIV testing of a person accused of “aggravated homosexuality,” which includes being HIV-positive and committing homosexual acts. Furthermore, anyone who “promotes homosexuality” can face years in prison.

At least eight states in the USA prohibit school systems from including anything in curriculum that “promotes” homosexuality or portrays LGBTI people in a positive light."


 
Correct!
The answer is E.

Russia, USA, Nigeria and Uganda all have federal or state laws of some sort against so-called “homosexual propaganda.”

In June 2013, Russia’s parliament adopted a new federal law prohibiting “propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations.”

In Nigeria, a new law of January 2014 mandates 14 years in prison for anyone in a same-sex union, and 10 years for operating, participating in or supporting gay clubs and organizations.

In February 2014, a new Ugandan law reaffirmed the existing penalty of life imprisonment for same-sex intimacy. It also imposes forced HIV testing of a person accused of “aggravated homosexuality,” which includes being HIV-positive and committing homosexual acts. Furthermore, anyone who “promotes homosexuality” can face years in prison.

At least eight states in the USA prohibit school systems from including anything in curriculum that “promotes” homosexuality or portrays LGBTI people in a positive light."


 
Which of these strategies by international allies is not supported by Ugandan LGBTI activists fighting against the Anti-Homosexuality Act passed there earlier this year?


 
The answer is B.

Ugandan LGBTI activists have not called for cuts to Ugandan foreign aid.

Ugandan advocates have called for a wide range of strategies that organizations, individuals, governments and companies around the world can take to help. But a coalition of the leading Ugandan groups has explicitly rejected calls for donor governments to cut foreign aid to Uganda because this would harm all Ugandans, including LGBTI people. They have instead urged support — including funding and technical support — for community groups that are doing the human rights advocacy on the ground to challenge such hate laws."

 
Correct!
The answer is B.

Ugandan LGBTI activists have not called for cuts to Ugandan foreign aid.

Ugandan advocates have called for a wide range of strategies that organizations, individuals, governments and companies around the world can take to help. But a coalition of the leading Ugandan groups has explicitly rejected calls for donor governments to cut foreign aid to Uganda because this would harm all Ugandans, including LGBTI people. They have instead urged support — including funding and technical support — for community groups that are doing the human rights advocacy on the ground to challenge such hate laws."

 
In which of these years were there significant international developments in advancing the basic human rights of LGBTI people?


 
The answer is D.

All of the above years saw significant international developments.

In 1994, the UN Human Rights Committee issued its decision in Toonen v. Australia, the first ruling declaring that criminalizing consensual sexual activity between adults of the same sex violates a UN human rights treaty.

In 2011, the UN Human Rights Council adopted the first UN resolution ever to focus on protecting people against human rights abuses based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

In 2014. the first ever event on the rights of intersex people was held at the UN Human Rights Council in March. The next month, the Indian Supreme Court recognized discrimination against transgender people, ordering governments to grant legal recognition of their gender identity and to ensure access to medical care. And in May, the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights passed an historic resolution condemning violence and other abuses based on real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity."

 
Correct!
The answer is D.

All of the above years saw significant international developments.

In 1994, the UN Human Rights Committee issued its decision in Toonen v. Australia, the first ruling declaring that criminalizing consensual sexual activity between adults of the same sex violates a UN human rights treaty.

In 2011, the UN Human Rights Council adopted the first UN resolution ever to focus on protecting people against human rights abuses based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

In 2014. the first ever event on the rights of intersex people was held at the UN Human Rights Council in March. The next month, the Indian Supreme Court recognized discrimination against transgender people, ordering governments to grant legal recognition of their gender identity and to ensure access to medical care. And in May, the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights passed an historic resolution condemning violence and other abuses based on real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity."

 
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has ruled against discrimination based on sexual orientation.


 
The answer is TRUE.

In the case of Atala v. Chile, Karen Atala was facing a lawsuit by her former husband, who sought to deprive her of custody of their three children because her same-sex partner had begun living in their home. Chile’s Supreme Court granted his request, saying the children needed to be protected against “the potential confusion over sexual roles" that would arise from remaining in Atala’s custody.

But in 2012, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights overturned this. The Court ruled that Chile had violated Atala’s rights and those of her children under the American Convention on Human Rights. The Court decided — for the first time ever — that this treaty bans discrimination based on sexual orientation."

 
Correct!
The answer is TRUE.

In the case of Atala v. Chile, Karen Atala was facing a lawsuit by her former husband, who sought to deprive her of custody of their three children because her same-sex partner had begun living in their home. Chile’s Supreme Court granted his request, saying the children needed to be protected against “the potential confusion over sexual roles" that would arise from remaining in Atala’s custody.

But in 2012, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights overturned this. The Court ruled that Chile had violated Atala’s rights and those of her children under the American Convention on Human Rights. The Court decided — for the first time ever — that this treaty bans discrimination based on sexual orientation."

 
In many countries, sex workers face extreme human rights abuses. Laws and their enforcement often contribute to stigma, marginalization, discrimination, violence and lack of access to basic services, such as police protection and health care. Evidence also shows that criminalization forces sex workers into circumstances that diminish their control over their working conditions, including their ability to negotiate safer sex."

 
A number of countries are contemplating new laws that criminalize the purchase of sex as a way to protect women in sex work. What happens when clients are criminalized for buying sex?


 
The answer is D.

Criminalizing sex workers’ clients also harms sex workers.

When clients fear arrest for buying sex, negotiations must be done rapidly and often in more isolated areas. In places such as Sweden and Norway where purchasing sex is a crime, or in settings where police have sometimes done “sweeps” targeting clients, sex workers report needing to rush transactions and so they are not able to properly screen clients. This leads to greater risk-taking in client selection and makes it more difficult for sex workers to alert others if they are in danger and need to remove themselves from dangerous situations."


 
Correct!
The answer is D.

Criminalizing sex workers’ clients also harms sex workers.

When clients fear arrest for buying sex, negotiations must be done rapidly and often in more isolated areas. In places such as Sweden and Norway where purchasing sex is a crime, or in settings where police have sometimes done “sweeps” targeting clients, sex workers report needing to rush transactions and so they are not able to properly screen clients. This leads to greater risk-taking in client selection and makes it more difficult for sex workers to alert others if they are in danger and need to remove themselves from dangerous situations."


 
In 2003, New Zealand decriminalized sex work, prompting fears that this would lead to a growth in the sex industry. What of the following has been seen following the decriminalization of sex work there?


 
The answer is C.

Decriminalizing sex work in New Zealand has led to better relations between sex workers and the police.

A government evaluation of New Zealand’s Prostitution Reform Act found that the decriminalization of sex work did not result in any growth of the sex industry or any increase in the number of sex workers. But improving the relationship between sex workers and the police means sex workers are better able to report violence to the police. Sex workers also report being more empowered to demand safe working conditions and negotiate safer sex practices."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.

Decriminalizing sex work in New Zealand has led to better relations between sex workers and the police.

A government evaluation of New Zealand’s Prostitution Reform Act found that the decriminalization of sex work did not result in any growth of the sex industry or any increase in the number of sex workers. But improving the relationship between sex workers and the police means sex workers are better able to report violence to the police. Sex workers also report being more empowered to demand safe working conditions and negotiate safer sex practices."

 
Screening clients promotes safer sex practices.


 
The answer is TRUE.

Making it easier for sex workers to screen clients does promote safer sex practices.

Screening clients promotes safer sex by allowing sex workers and clients to discuss safer sex practices up-front. In countries such as Sweden where it is illegal for clients to purchase sex, sex workers face pressure to quickly conclude a transaction for fear of police intervention. As a result, they do not have enough time to screen a potential client and negotiate the terms of a transaction, including condom use."

 
Correct!
The answer is TRUE.

Making it easier for sex workers to screen clients does promote safer sex practices.

Screening clients promotes safer sex by allowing sex workers and clients to discuss safer sex practices up-front. In countries such as Sweden where it is illegal for clients to purchase sex, sex workers face pressure to quickly conclude a transaction for fear of police intervention. As a result, they do not have enough time to screen a potential client and negotiate the terms of a transaction, including condom use."

 
How is the criminalization of brothels or “bawdy houses” linked to HIV?


 
The answer is D.

The criminalization of brothels or “bawdy houses” is linked to HIV in many negative ways.

A ban on brothels or “bawdy houses” penalizes sex workers who work from their own home or secure indoor facilities where sex workers can bring their clients. Indoor venues allow sex workers to work together and may have additional safety protections (e.g., managers or security, client sign-in) that promote sex workers’ ability to control transactions, including avoiding violence, refusing unwanted clients or risky services, and insisting on condom use. The threat of prosecution also deters those working in brothels from making large quantities of condoms and other safer sex materials available."

 
Correct!
The answer is D.

The criminalization of brothels or “bawdy houses” is linked to HIV in many negative ways.

A ban on brothels or “bawdy houses” penalizes sex workers who work from their own home or secure indoor facilities where sex workers can bring their clients. Indoor venues allow sex workers to work together and may have additional safety protections (e.g., managers or security, client sign-in) that promote sex workers’ ability to control transactions, including avoiding violence, refusing unwanted clients or risky services, and insisting on condom use. The threat of prosecution also deters those working in brothels from making large quantities of condoms and other safer sex materials available."

 
Criminalizing “third parties” in sex work protects sex workers from exploitation and promotes their health and safety.


 
The answer is FALSE.

Criminalizing third parties prevents the use of security measures that protect sex workers.

Third parties are people that sex workers work for or with, or that sex workers hire, such as personal assistants, drivers, security people, web designers, agents, owners, managers and receptionists. Criminalizing third parties means sex workers cannot work with one another, hire security, or work for an agency to increase their safety. In many countries, there are already adequate laws to protect all people, including sex workers, from exploitation — there is no need to single out third parties in the sex industry."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

Criminalizing third parties prevents the use of security measures that protect sex workers.

Third parties are people that sex workers work for or with, or that sex workers hire, such as personal assistants, drivers, security people, web designers, agents, owners, managers and receptionists. Criminalizing third parties means sex workers cannot work with one another, hire security, or work for an agency to increase their safety. In many countries, there are already adequate laws to protect all people, including sex workers, from exploitation — there is no need to single out third parties in the sex industry."

 
In recent years, there has been a much greater emphasis on the role of HIV treatment as a method of HIV prevention. Many experts and advocates now believe that the provision of antiretroviral medication (ARVs) may be one of the most important elements of any strategy to end the HIV epidemic and another powerful reason to expand access to treatment. But this approach must not come at the expense of human rights."

 
HIV testing and treatment are which of the following?


 
The answer is D, all of the above.

HIV testing and treatment are critical to halting the spread of HIV and preventing AIDS-related deaths, and therefore part of realizing the human right to the highest attainable standard of health for all people.

But they remain inaccessible to many people around the world. Stigma, inadequate services, costly medications and laws criminalizing HIV exposure and “key populations” — i.e., sex workers, people who use drugs, gay men and trans people — are some of the barriers to the realization of the right to health for people living with and vulnerable to HIV."

 
Correct!
The answer is D, all of the above.

HIV testing and treatment are critical to halting the spread of HIV and preventing AIDS-related deaths, and therefore part of realizing the human right to the highest attainable standard of health for all people.

But they remain inaccessible to many people around the world. Stigma, inadequate services, costly medications and laws criminalizing HIV exposure and “key populations” — i.e., sex workers, people who use drugs, gay men and trans people — are some of the barriers to the realization of the right to health for people living with and vulnerable to HIV."

 
Which approach to scaling-up HIV prevention and treatment is most consistent with human rights?


 
The answer is C.

The approach most consistent with human rights is voluntary, confidential HIV counselling and testing.

Human rights standards highlight the need to respect the “5 Cs” of HIV testing: confidentiality; consent; pre- and post-test counselling; linking people to care; and correct test results. Providing voluntary, confidential HIV counselling and testing in a range of settings allows individuals to seek out testing where and when it feels safe.

Mandatory testing is a violation of numerous basic human rights, including rights to privacy and bodily integrity. In addition, singling out specific groups for testing without consent also amounts to discrimination. Routinely testing people unless they explicitly opt-out of testing — such as when they seek health care services — raises serious human rights concerns about ensuring respect for informed consent, which is a key ethical and human rights requirement of any medical intervention, including for HIV testing."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.

The approach most consistent with human rights is voluntary, confidential HIV counselling and testing.

Human rights standards highlight the need to respect the “5 Cs” of HIV testing: confidentiality; consent; pre- and post-test counselling; linking people to care; and correct test results. Providing voluntary, confidential HIV counselling and testing in a range of settings allows individuals to seek out testing where and when it feels safe.

Mandatory testing is a violation of numerous basic human rights, including rights to privacy and bodily integrity. In addition, singling out specific groups for testing without consent also amounts to discrimination. Routinely testing people unless they explicitly opt-out of testing — such as when they seek health care services — raises serious human rights concerns about ensuring respect for informed consent, which is a key ethical and human rights requirement of any medical intervention, including for HIV testing."

 
Effective treatment with antiretroviral medications (ARVs) lowers the amount of virus in the blood of a person living with HIV and thereby reduces the possibility of transmitting HIV by what percentage?


 
The answer is A.

Effective treatment with antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has been shown to halt damage to the immune system of a person living with HIV and also reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner by at least 96%, and possibly more (as some studies currently underway may soon show)."

 
Correct!
The answer is A.

Effective treatment with antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has been shown to halt damage to the immune system of a person living with HIV and also reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner by at least 96%, and possibly more (as some studies currently underway may soon show)."

 
HIV treatment not only improves the health of a person living with HIV but also prevents the virus from being passed on to other people. Therefore, treatment with ARVs should be mandatory for all people diagnosed with HIV.


 
The answer is FALSE.

Everyone has the right to make decisions regarding their own body and the medical treatment they receive — including whether they take HIV treatment and the type of treatment they take.

The desire to use HIV medications to reduce people’s viral load, and hence the risk of them passing on the virus to sexual partners, does not justify treating people involuntarily. Treating people without informed consent is unethical and a violation of human rights."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

Everyone has the right to make decisions regarding their own body and the medical treatment they receive — including whether they take HIV treatment and the type of treatment they take.

The desire to use HIV medications to reduce people’s viral load, and hence the risk of them passing on the virus to sexual partners, does not justify treating people involuntarily. Treating people without informed consent is unethical and a violation of human rights."

 
Using “treatment as prevention” is one of the most important developments to date in the global HIV response. We can start celebrating — the end of AIDS is near.


 
The answer is FALSE.

The HIV prevention benefits of antiretroviral treatment are an important biomedical discovery, both in terms of promoting individual health and helping with broader efforts to prevent further transmission of HIV. But this discovery will not automatically bring about the end of the epidemic.

Now more than ever, we need to: protect the rights of those most vulnerable to the virus; repeal laws that create barriers to HIV testing and treatment (such as those that criminalize same-sex relationships, sex work and drug use); make medicines and culturally appropriate health services available and accessible to all (including by making them affordable); and support people living with or affected by HIV to know their rights and to participate meaningfully in responding to the epidemic."

 
Correct!
The answer is FALSE.

The HIV prevention benefits of antiretroviral treatment are an important biomedical discovery, both in terms of promoting individual health and helping with broader efforts to prevent further transmission of HIV. But this discovery will not automatically bring about the end of the epidemic.

Now more than ever, we need to: protect the rights of those most vulnerable to the virus; repeal laws that create barriers to HIV testing and treatment (such as those that criminalize same-sex relationships, sex work and drug use); make medicines and culturally appropriate health services available and accessible to all (including by making them affordable); and support people living with or affected by HIV to know their rights and to participate meaningfully in responding to the epidemic."

 
Gender inequality is at the heart of the HIV epidemic, and women and girls account for a steadily growing proportion of the world’s HIV cases. There are many human rights abuses that make women and girls more likely to be affected by HIV. Protecting and fulfilling women’s rights is a critical element in reducing their risk of getting infected and of ensuring dignity and health for women living with HIV."

 
Despite advancements in HIV prevention in some parts of the world, rates of HIV infection among women globally remain high. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of which factors?


 
The answer is D, all of the above.

Throughout the world, prevalent discrimination and the systemic inequality of women increases women’s vulnerability to HIV. While biological factors also play a role, gender-based violence increases risk of HIV infection because it takes away a person’s ability to choose and to negotiate various situations, such as the ability to negotiate safer sex, including condom use.

Other forms of gender-based discrimination — in the areas of marriage and divorce law, property and inheritance rights, and sexual and reproductive rights — also limit women’s ability to protect themselves from HIV infection."

 
Correct!
The answer is D, all of the above.

Throughout the world, prevalent discrimination and the systemic inequality of women increases women’s vulnerability to HIV. While biological factors also play a role, gender-based violence increases risk of HIV infection because it takes away a person’s ability to choose and to negotiate various situations, such as the ability to negotiate safer sex, including condom use.

Other forms of gender-based discrimination — in the areas of marriage and divorce law, property and inheritance rights, and sexual and reproductive rights — also limit women’s ability to protect themselves from HIV infection."

 
While systemic inequality and discrimination increase women’s risk of HIV infection, women often face further discrimination once they become HIV-positive. Which of the following are examples of discrimination faced by HIV-positive women?


 
The answer is E, all of the above.

There is growing recognition that HIV-positive women are subject to severe forms of discrimination, including increased risks of violence and abandonment after disclosing their HIV status, hostile attitudes and discrimination from health care providers, and involuntary sterilization.

Involuntary sterilizations among women living with HIV has been documented in Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda and Zambia. While all people living with HIV may experience stigma and discrimination, the intersection of gender-based discrimination with HIV-related stigma and discrimination, along with other forms of discrimination (including racial, ethnic, religious and disability), produce a particular set of risks for HIV-positive women, girls and trans people."

 
Correct!
The answer is E, all of the above.

There is growing recognition that HIV-positive women are subject to severe forms of discrimination, including increased risks of violence and abandonment after disclosing their HIV status, hostile attitudes and discrimination from health care providers, and involuntary sterilization.

Involuntary sterilizations among women living with HIV has been documented in Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda and Zambia. While all people living with HIV may experience stigma and discrimination, the intersection of gender-based discrimination with HIV-related stigma and discrimination, along with other forms of discrimination (including racial, ethnic, religious and disability), produce a particular set of risks for HIV-positive women, girls and trans people."

 
What percentage of total funding spent to address HIV among women is being spent on addressing vertical transmission from mothers to children?


 
The answer is C.

According to a UNAIDS survey of HIV spending specific to women between 2009 and 2011, 71% of funds were spent on addressing vertical transmission of the virus from women to their children.

Ending vertical transmission is critical to overcoming the epidemic. But women’s needs for HIV prevention and treatment services, and for recognition of their human rights, goes beyond this issue. Women living with HIV have mobilized for their human rights, including sexual and reproductive rights such as freedom from involuntary sterilization, as well as the right to HIV treatment in their own right, not simply for purposes of preventing vertical transmission.

And fulfilling women’s rights to freedom from violence, and to equitable treatment under various laws, are also critical parts of addressing the HIV risks faced by women and girls, and supporting women living with HIV."

 
Correct!
The answer is C.


According to a UNAIDS survey of HIV spending specific to women between 2009 and 2011, 71% of funds were spent on addressing vertical transmission of the virus from women to their children.

Ending vertical transmission is critical to overcoming the epidemic. But women’s needs for HIV prevention and treatment services, and for recognition of their human rights, goes beyond this issue. Women living with HIV have mobilized for their human rights, including sexual and reproductive rights such as freedom from involuntary sterilization, as well as the right to HIV treatment in their own right, not simply for purposes of preventing vertical transmission.

And fulfilling women’s rights to freedom from violence, and to equitable treatment under various laws, are also critical parts of addressing the HIV risks faced by women and girls, and supporting women living with HIV."

 
Globally, young women (ages 15–24) accounted for 22% of new HIV infections in 2010, and infection rates for young women are twice as high as those for young men, according to UNAIDS. What are some of the factors that explain the increased risk of HIV infection for young women?


 
The answer is D, all of the above.

Globally, young women are especially vulnerable to HIV infection because they are at a higher risk of forced sex, are more likely to have inadequate sexual health education, and more likely to have older sexual partners."

 
Correct!
The answer is D, all of the above.

Globally, young women are especially vulnerable to HIV infection because they are at a higher risk of forced sex, are more likely to have inadequate sexual health education, and more likely to have older sexual partners."

 
Which of the following kinds of laws help protect women against HIV?


 
The answer is B.

Property laws that do not discriminate against women are central to ensuring women’s economic stability. Economically stable women face fewer economic pressures and have greater autonomy to make decisions regarding their sexual and reproductive health.

In contrast, research has shown that laws criminalizing sex work (and sex workers’ clients), and laws criminalizing drugs, increase vulnerability to HIV infection driving people away from health care and harm reduction services.

Nor does criminalizing HIV transmission, exposure or non-disclosure reduce women’s vulnerability to HIV, since it leads to another disincentive for HIV testing, contributes to misconceptions around HIV and its transmission, and undermines the relationship between patients, physicians and other service providers."

 
Correct!
The answer is B.

Property laws that do not discriminate against women are central to ensuring women’s economic stability. Economically stable women face fewer economic pressures and have greater autonomy to make decisions regarding their sexual and reproductive health.

In contrast, research has shown that laws criminalizing sex work (and sex workers’ clients), and laws criminalizing drugs, increase vulnerability to HIV infection driving people away from health care and harm reduction services.

Nor does criminalizing HIV transmission, exposure or non-disclosure reduce women’s vulnerability to HIV, since it leads to another disincentive for HIV testing, contributes to misconceptions around HIV and its transmission, and undermines the relationship between patients, physicians and other service providers."

 
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